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The Era of False News: Why We All Must Think Critically
By Shlomo  Maital  
 
       Today’s New York Times (“False News Really Does Spread Like Wildfire”, by Steve Lohr)  asks a tough question:  “What if the scourge of false news …is not …[Russians or bots]?   What if the main problem is us?”
        People are the principle culprits. You and me.  This is the result of extensive MIT research of false news (they prefer that term to Trump’s ‘fake news’).   “True stories were rarely retweeted by more than 1,000 people, but the top 1 % of false stories were routinely shared by 1,000 to 100,000 people. And it took true stories about six times as long as false ones to reach 1,500 people”. 
       We humans are responsible.  Because false news is almost always more sensational, more livid, than true.  So we rush to share it.  The research of Sinan Aral, MIT Sloan School of Management, appeared in Science magazine.
        So what can you and I,  what MUST you and I, do?  I think it is simple.  Back to basics. Back to John Dewey.  Back to Einstein.   We have to learn again how to think.
          I have been a college professor for over 50 years.   In that time, did I teach my students, facts, concepts, tools?  Or did I teach them how to think critically, including about what I am telling them?   I don’t think I did a very job in training them in one of today’s most crucial skills, knowing to tell truth from falsehood. 
        Knowledge today has a short half-life.  And in any case, knowledge can be found quickly, by anyone, using digital tools.  But the ability to think, to sort fact from fiction, truth from lies —  that has a very long half life.   And that skill is the pillar of any democratic system.  Because otherwise , scoundrels can get elected by telling us lies – and they do it all the time now.   
        Increasingly, people watch media, conventional and social, only when they agree with what it tells them.  Critical thinking is anesthetized.   This has to stop.  We have to teach our kids to analyze, weigh, criticize, critique, challenge.  We have to teach ourselves.  In a world where this skill is more widespread, the Russians will simply draw a blank – and give up.   And in a world where Trump says to Canada’s PM:  “US has a trade deficit with Canada” (false),  and later gloats that he just made it up  (US has an overall trade surplus with Canada, it takes 3 seconds to check this),   when the leader of the Free World doesn’t care if what he says is true or false, not does his base,  it is incumbent upon us, every human being, to care a whole lot more.      

Girls Who Code: The Effective Way to Defeat Gender Bias
By Shlomo  Maital
 
         Reshma Saujani
  In virtually every country,  women are paid less than men, for equal work.  Women are under-represented in high-tech,  senior management, politics, legislatures (except Iceland) – everywhere. 
   What can be done?   Pass laws?  It doesn’t work.   Let’s analyze the underlying true cause.  According to Reshma Saujani, in a powerful TED talk,  it is because boys are taught to be bold risk-takers, while women are socialized to be … perfect.  To get it right. 
    Boys who are taught computer coding try it, make mistakes, try again…   in an experiment, girls taught to code had blank computer screens…because they erased their trials, since they were not perfect.  
     Let’s teach our girls to be bold risk-takers! Let’s teach our girls bravery, the same way we teach our boys.    This is Reshma’s message.  She should know – she was one of the ‘I have to be perfect’ girls,  Yale Law, etc.,    until she figured it out.  She has helped launch a movement that hopefully will bring many more women into engineering and high-tech and to senior management.   Here is a short piece from her TED talk:
     “For the American economy, for any economy to grow, to truly innovate, we cannot leave behind half our population [women].   We have to socialize our girls to be comfortable with imperfection,   and we’ve got to do it now.  We cannot wait for them to learn how to be brave like I did when I was 33 years old.   We have to teach them to be brave in schools and early in their careers,  when it has the most potential to impact their lives  and the lives of others,  and we have to show them that they will be loved and accepted not for being perfect but for being courageous.  And so I need each of you to tell every young woman you know –your sister, your niece, your employee, your colleague –to be comfortable with imperfection,   because when we teach girls to be imperfect,  and we help them leverage it,  we will build a movement of young women who are brave and who will build a better world for themselves and for each and every one of us.”

 

 3 Decades in 364 Words:
A Guide for the Perplexed
By Shlomo  Maital   
  
     The world has become a chaotic, complex system, hard to understand, impossible to predict.  Here in 300 words is a vestpocket history since 1989 –hope it will help.
      On Nov. 9 1989 the Berlin Wall fell.  This led to the rapid unification of the two Germany’s (note: this can also happen to the 2 Korea’s, equally fast), which accelerated the European Union, and marks the onset of true globalization – free movement of ideas, capital, labor, goods, services and information across borders. 
       Globalization created massive wealth for a handful smart enough to take advantage.  It created unprecedented growth for China and other Asian nations; for Germany to some extent; for India, and some poor countries.  But most poor nations were left out, especially those in Africa. 
        Capitalism broke down.  Great wealth bought political influence, and corruption became rampant, in Russia,  and elsewhere.   The huge canyon between rich and poor led desperate people in corrupt nations (Mideast, Africa, some Central and Latin American countries) to migrate, at risk of life and limb, toward the wealth.  Meanwhile, in many countries democracy regressed.  The EU pushed union too far, seeking to unify politically, leading to widespread pushback and Britain’s exit.  The flood of migrants to Europe threatened the foundations of European unity. 
      In the ongoing historical cycle, the wave of democracy that swept the world after WWII,  and during globalization,  began to retreat, as corruption, influence of money and wealth disparities led democracy to break down in many places that tried it.  The Arab Spring became the Mideast winter.  Russia, China and other nations seemed to entrench leaders permanently.   Globalization receded.
       Even America, a bastion of democracy,  regressed under Trump, embracing the backlash of the white minority against migrants.  Trump’s “trade wars are good” reflects abysmal ignorance of the last Great Trade War, 1933, that brought a world depression.  Italy’s election tomorrow will focus not on key issues (economy, jobs) but on Italy’s 650,000 migrants.   In my country Israel, a right-wing government seeks to illegally expel African migrants, against their will.
      This cycle will play itself out.  We will eventually return to democracy and globalization will again grow and spread.  We will find ways to include poor nations left out of the global system.  Racist ignorant leaders will be deposed.  We are seeing signs everywhere of an uprising, of young people taking responsibility.  Take a long view of history and remain hopeful.

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A brief p.s.     In May, if sufficient numbers register,  I will offer a one-week course on How to Change the World With Ideas, at a beautiful spot in northern Greece.  If this interests you, check out:   http://unboundprometheus.com/program-one/

Blog entries written by Prof. Shlomo Maital

Shlomo Maital
March 2018
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