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Why do we disagree? And how can we reglue society? 

By Shlomo Maital

     It does seem as if the world is falling apart.   Whole nations are coming part (Spain, perhaps Italy, Iraq, Syria). Within nations, divisive bitter arguments pit one family member against another.  

   But why? Why now?

   I think moral psychologist Jonathan Haidt (U. of Virginia) has a persuasive answer. *

     He was recently interviewed on US Public Radio (WBUR). He explained that he believes there are five core values, or moral principles, that are strongly believed in, in society. They are: Harm/care (avoid harming others, care when they hurt or suffer, be empathic); Fairness/reciprocity (be fair, give as you receive); In-group loyalty (be loyal and true to your specific ethnic/social group); authority/respect (honor and respect whoever is in charge); purity/sanctity (follow religious practice, hold certain things sacred).

     Politically: Those who are very liberal give very high importance to “care” and to “fair”.   (See graph above).   Those who are very conservative attach high importance to loyalty, authority and sanctity.

     What seems to be happening in the US is that the middle is emptying. The middle class is declining, as people sink in their income, or, in a few cases, grow wealthy. The middle in politics is also emptying. And underneath all this, the ‘middle’ in moral values is also emptying.

     Either we are liberal, and hold above all else the crucial importance of empathy and fairness (equal opportunity, equal wealth holding). Or we hold above all else the vital importance of loyalty, respect, sanctity.  

     If you wonder why very conservative Trump supporters continue to support him strongly despite his statements, falsehoods and incompetence, this graph explains it. Loyalty!  

       Are there inherent tradeoffs or conflicts among these key values? Or can we, by listening and explaining, integrate all these values into a coherent single whole, one that we can all live by,   liberal, moderate and conservative?  

       Barack Obama recently said, that if you get elected by dividing people, you won’t be able to govern them. That is true. America is essentially ungovernable, post-Trump.

     Can we find someone who gets elected by uniting people, around those five core values woven together?    

* Jonathan Haidt. “The new synthesis in moral psychology”. Science, May 18 2007, pp. 998-1000.

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Blog entries written by Prof. Shlomo Maital

Shlomo Maital
September 2019
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